As the heterogeneity of diabetes is becoming increasingly clear, opportunities arise for more accurate assessment of factors influencing disease onset, which may lead to more efficient primary prevention. LADA — latent autoimmune diabetes in adults — is a common, hybrid form of diabetes with features of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the pathophysiological and etiological overlap and differences between LADA and type 2 diabetes, discuss similarities between LADA and type 1 diabetes and point at future research needs. Studies conducted to date show a clear genetic overlap between LADA and type 1 diabetes with a high risk conferred by variants in the human leukocyte antigen HLA region. In contrast, data from the limited number of studies on lifestyle factors available indicate that LADA may share several environmental risk factors with type 2 diabetes including overweight, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption protective and smoking. These factors are known to influence insulin sensitivity, suggesting that insulin resistance, in addition to insulin deficiency due to autoimmune destruction of the beta cells, may play a key role in the pathogenesis of LADA. Moreover, this implies that onset of LADA, similar to type 2 diabetes, to some extent could be prevented or postponed by lifestyle modification such as weight reduction and increased physical activity. The preventive potential of LADA is an important topic to elucidate in future studies, preferably intervention studies.
Autoimmune diabetes is a heterogeneous disease which can arise at any age. Subjects with adult-onset autoimmune diabetes who do not necessitate insulin-therapy for at least 6 months after diagnosis are demarcated as having latent autoimmune diabetes in adults LADA. This condition is more heterogeneous than young-onset autoimmune diabetes and shares clinical and metabolic characteristics with both type 2 and type 1 diabetes. These subjects are mostly treated as affected by type 2 diabetes, a factor that might lead to the progression to insulin-dependency quickly. Recent data concerning the use of oral antidiabetic agents as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists indicate up-and-coming results in term of protect C-peptide levels and improving glycaemic control.
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults LADA is a form of diabetes mellitus type 1 that occurs in adulthood, often with a slower course of onset than type 1 diabetes diagnosed in juveniles. The diagnosis is typically based on the finding of hyperglycemia together with the clinical impression that islet failure rather than insulin resistance is the main cause; detection of a low C-peptide and raised antibodies against the islets of Langerhans support the diagnosis. It can only be treated with the usual oral treatments for type 2 diabetes for a certain period of time,   after which insulin treatment is usually necessary, as well as long-term monitoring for complications. The concept of LADA was first introduced in ,  though The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus does not recognize the term, instead including it under the standard definition of diabetes mellitus type 1.
It's a type of diabetes which seems to straddle Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Bits of it are more like Type 1, and other bits are more like Type 2. That's why some people call it Type 1. But they generally come on much slower than they do with Type 1, over months rather than weeks. And whereas being overweight is a major risk factor for Type 2 diabetes , people with LADA tend to have a healthy weight. Diagnosing LADA can be difficult, and some people are diagnosed with having Type 2 diabetes by mistake. If you have LADA, you'll usually have antibodies in your blood that are usually found in people with Type 1. These are found using something called a GADA antibody test. You tend to go on to insulin much quicker than you would normally if you had Type 2 diabetes. Until this study shares its findings, most healthcare professionals agree that the aim of treatment is to keep insulin being produced for as long as possible.